Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris | National Army Indonesia

Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris | National Army IndonesiaKAPAK Comunity | Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris | National Army Indonesia, Alhmadulillah tidak henti-hentinya selalu kita panjatkan puji syukur kepada Allah SWT. kerana kita masih di beri kesempatan hidup hingga detik ini. pada kesempatan kali ini KAPAK Comunity akan berbagi Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris | National Army Indonesia. oke langsung saja.


INTRODUCTION

Praise to God all praise belongs to Allah SWT. Which has provided a healthy favor and had the grace and blessings we could finish the paper that had the title NATIONAL ARMY INDONESIA ( TNI )”
I would like to thank all my friends who have been taking part in the making of this paper is to finish eating, and also to all those who helped in the completion of this paper.
For the perfection of this paper, we expect criticism and suggestions from readers as we only human who make mistakes. Hopefully this paper for dear readers.















Pamekasan 05 December 2012


Author




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Paper ........................................................................................................................  i
Introduction ........................................................................................................................  ii
Table Of Contents ..............................................................................................................  iii
CHAPTER I Introduction  .................................................................................................  1
A.    Background ............................................................................................................  1
B.     Problem Formulation ..............................................................................................  1
C.     Destination .............................................................................................................  1
CHAPTER II Discussion ...................................................................................................  2
A.    History Of The Army Indonesia ............................................................................  2
B.     Task Forces Indonesia ............................................................................................  3
C.     The establishment of military .................................................................................  3
D.    Devotion TNI .........................................................................................................  4
E.     A TNI Identity .......................................................................................................  5
F.      Kinds of military ....................................................................................................  5
CHAPTER III  Closing ......................................................................................................  11
Knot ..............................................................................................................................  11
References ..........................................................................................................................  12




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A.    Background
Indonesia at the beginning of the country did not have a unified army. People's Security Agency established in the trial PPKI dated August 22, 1945 and promulgated by the President on August 23, 1945 is not the army as an official military organization.
BKR both at central and regional levels under the authority KNIP and KNI area and not under the president as commander in chief orders army. BKR is also not under the coordination of the Minister of Defense. BKR only prepared to maintain local security in order not to give the impression that Indonesia is preparing to go to war to face the Allies.
Finally, through the Government Notice dated October 5, 1945 (to this day is celebrated as the birthday of the TNI), BKR transformed into People's Security Army (TKR). On January 7, 1946, the People's Security Army was renamed the People's Salvation Army. Then on January 24, 1946, changed again to the Army of the Republic of Indonesia.
Army of the Republic of Indonesia, on May 5, 1947, the President issued a decree to unify the Army of the Republic of Indonesia to the ranks of the armed into the Indonesian National Army (TNI). The unification took place and was inaugurated on June 3, 1947.
B.     Problem Formulation
1.      How history of the birth of the Indonesian National Army?
2.      How many kinds of Indonesian National Army soldiers?
C.     Destination
In the manufacture of this paper aims to find out a little more about the Indonesian National Armed Forces ranging from the birth of Indonesia to a variety of the Indonesian National Army.






CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
A.    History Of The Army Indonesia
Beginning of the military establishment can not be separated from the context of the Indonesian people's struggle against the invaders. As we know Indonesia suffered colonialism for more than three and a half centuries, which ended with the long struggle of the Indonesian people to gain independence from the hands of invaders.
Before independence, the people of Indonesia suffered misery in the Japanese occupation for three and a half years, during which time PETA  and HEIHO established by the Japanese. The struggle for independence during the period is still sporadic, although done in almost all parts of Indonesia and organizations in the form of resistance-army paramilitary struggle. After the independence of the Republic of Indonesia on August eighteen nineteen forty-five, pursuant to Decree PPKI on August eighteen nineteen forty-five established the People's Security Agency (BKR), which consists of the former Dutch East Indies and Japanese soldiers, among others PETA  and HEIHO and derived from the people, the youth ranks, Hezbollah , Sabilillah and Pioneers. Integrate well with that army-paramilitary and army students scattered in various regions, either already or not acquire military training, all of which are collected in BKR.
Along with development of the organization's needs and improve the organization conducted BKR. The refinement step is restructuring to support the professionalism and accommodate the potential power struggle. BKR transformed into People's Security Army (TKR) were changed again to the People's Salvation Army (TKR) by Presidential Decree dated five October nineteen forty-five. TKR later became the Army of the Republic of Indonesia (TRI). On three June nineteen forty-seven TRI changed to the Indonesian military (TNI). A decision PPKI and Presidential Decree at the time, it can be concluded that the actual military organization was actually born out of a decision by civilian authorities.
Development, on June twenty-one, nineteen sixty-two, the military changed to the Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI). Armed Forces consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Police of the Republic of Indonesia. In the reform era, which in 2000 turned into a military armed forces returned after the issuance of MPR Decree. VI/MPR/2000 About Separation of the Indonesian National Army and Police of the Republic of Indonesia. Then, as the mandate of the Law. three of two thousand two on National Defiance made Law. thirty-four of two thousand four which regulates the TNI.
B.     Task Forces Indonesia
In accordance TNI Law Article 7. The first paragraph, the key task is to uphold the sovereignty of the state military, defend the territorial integrity of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the Constitution forty-five, and protect all the people and the entire country of Indonesia from threats and harassment against the integrity of the nation and the state . The second paragraph , The principal tasks referred to in paragraph one is done by:
1.      Military operations for war
2.      Military operations other than war, namely to:
a.       Cope with armed separatist movements
b.      Overcome an armed uprising
c.       Tackle terrorism
d.      Secure the border
e.       Securing vital national strategic
f.       The task of world peace according to foreign policy
g.      Securing the President and Vice President and their families
h.      Empower the defense and strength according to supporters early defense system
i.        assist the governments in the region
j.        assist the Indonesian National Police in order to security and public order duties set out in the legislation
k.      help secure the country level are heads of state and representatives of foreign governments who were in Indonesia
l.        help cope with natural disasters, refugee, and humanitarian assistance
m.    help the search and rescue in an accident (English: search and rescue)
n.      assist the government in the shipping and aviation security against piracy, piracy, and smuggling.
Then the third verse reads "The provisions referred to in paragraph two implemented by state policy and political decisions."
C.     The establishment of military
TNI led to the creation in the early independence of Indonesia starting from the incorporation of the armed forces from the leaders of armed fighters, both from the results of Japanese education (MAP), Dutch (KNIL), as well as those coming from the camp of the people. The results of this merger produces an institution called the People's Security Agency (BKR), were then successively renamed the People's Security Army (TKR), the People's Salvation Army (TKR), Army of the Republic of Indonesia (TRI) and the Indonesian National Army (TNI) .
During the New Order, the Indonesian military (TNI) is mixed with the Indonesian National Police (INP). This merger formed a board with the name of the Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI). According to MPR Decree. VI/MPR/2000 re-use the name of the Indonesian National Army (TNI) after a separation of roles between the military and police.
Since its inception, the military face a variety of tasks in order to uphold state sovereignty, defend the territorial integrity of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia in 1945, as well as protect all the people and the entire country of Indonesia from threats and harassment against the integrity of the nation and the state .
D.    Devotion TNI
TNI devotion to the state can be seen in the history of the struggle.
1.      Maintaining independence
Soon after the Declaration of Independence August seventeenth, nineteen forty-five Indonesia faced Allied Nations / Dutch tried to re-colonize Indonesia. Arrival back Allied / Dutch Opposition military force with the people. Resistance raises the fighting everywhere, such as in Semarang (nineteen forty-five), Ambarawa (nineteen forty-five), Surabaya (nineteen forty-five), Bandung Sea of Fire (nineteen forty-six), Medan Area (nineteen forty-six), Palembang (emapt nineteen twenty-seven), Margarana (nineteen forty-six), Manado (nineteen forty-six), Sanga-Sanga (nineteen forty-seven), the Dutch Military Aggression I (nineteen forty-seven), the Dutch Military Aggression II (nineteen forty-eight), and the General Offensive March one, nineteen forty-nine.
In the face of the Dutch Military Aggression II, although the Government of Indonesia, who was based in Yogyakarta has been surrendered, the Great General Sudirman continue the struggle, that is by the guerrilla because sticking to the principle of the interests of the state and nation.
As a result of the resistance of the Indonesian nation was finally able to maintain the recognition of the independence and sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia on December 27, 1949. The struggle was successful thanks to the strong confidence, unyielding spirit, selflessly fought with a determination to independence or death.
2.      Maintain the integrity of the nation and the state
TNI and the people carrying out operations such domestic crackdown on PKI Movement in Madison in nineteen forty-eight and thirty-September nineteen sixty-five, the revolt DI / TII in West Java, Aceh, South Sulawesi, the PRRI in West Sumatra, Permesta in Manado, South Sulawesi Muzakar Kahar, PGRS / Paraku in West Kalimantan, Republic of South Maluku in Ambon, Aceh GPLHT, Ganda Board in South Sumatra, and OPM in Irian. The fight was held in the interest of saving the nation and state, and hold fast to the principles for the sake of the integrity of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia.
Security operations carried out against state activities such as elections, General Assembly / Assembly Special Session, and safeguards against communal conflict. Operations security is based on the interests of the state and the nation, saving our nation and state.
E.     A TNI Identity
As per Article Two of Law TNI, Indonesian National Armed Forces identity is:
1.      People's Army is an army whose members come from citizens of Indonesia
2.      Warrior Soldiers are soldiers who fought to uphold the Republic of Indonesia and knows no surrender in implementing and completing tasks.
3.      National Army soldiers of the Indonesian nation is serving the interests of the country above the interests of regional, ethnic, racial, and religious groups.
4.      Professional soldiers are soldiers who are trained, educated, well-equipped, not practical politics, not business, and guaranteed well-being, and to follow state policy that adheres to the principles of democracy, civilian supremacy, human rights, national legislation and international law ratified
F.     Kinds of military
1.      Army
Army is part of the Indonesian National Armed Forces responsible for land operations and is headed by a Chief of Staff of the Army, which is currently held by General Pramono Edhie Wibowo.
a.       Task Army
1)      The principal tasks
As part of the military, the Army is the fundamental duty to uphold state sovereignty, defend the territorial integrity of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year nineteen forty-five, as well as protect all the people and the entire country of Indonesia from threats and harassment against national unity and state.
2)      Tasks
a)      Military duty ground forces, the defense field, namely by conducting Military Operations To War (OMP) and Military Operations In addition to War (OMSP).
b)      Military duty in maintaining the security of land borders with other countries: that is to make every effort, work, and activities to ensure the enforcement of state sovereignty, territorial integrity, and safety of the nation in the land borders with other countries and in the outer islands / remote from all forms of threats and violations.
c)      Military task force in the construction and development of terrestrial dimension, to make every effort, work, and activities to achieve the appearance of an army posture alignment strengths, abilities, and his strength and completion of Army reserve component and component support ground forces, national defense .
d)     4. Implementing empowerment zone defense on the ground by organizing the planning, development, deployment, and control of the defense for the country's defense interests in the land in accordance with the Defence System of the Universe (Sishanta) through territorial development is to:
1.      Assist national governments to prepare potential aspect of the defense force that prepared the ground early, which covers the area of ​​defense and its sustaining power, to carry out military operations for the War, whose implementation is based on the interest of the state in accordance with Sishanta.
2.      Helping government military training compulsory for citizens in accordance with the legislation.
3.      Helping government empower people as the supporting force.
2.      Navy
Navy is part of the Indonesian National Armed Forces responsible for naval operations, headed by a Chief of Staff of the Navy. Strength of the Navy is currently divided into two fleets, the Western Fleet headquartered in Tanjung Priok, Jakarta and the Eastern Fleet headquartered in Tanjung Perak, Surabaya, and the Marine Military Traffic Command ( KOLINLAMIL ). It also oversees the Marine Corps. Navy and Army personnel resources educated and trained in the AAL, Kobangdikal, and Seskoal.
1)      A brief history of the Navy
History of the Navy began on ten September nineteen forty-five, after the early proclamation of Indonesia's independence, early administration of Indonesia established the People's Marine Security Agency (BKR Sea). Sea BKR spearheaded by veteran Indonesian sailors who served in the ranks of the Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy) in the Dutch colonial period and Kaigun during the Japanese occupation.
The formation of the Indonesian military organization known as the People's Security Army (TKR) helped spur the further existence of TKR Sea known as the Indonesian Navy (Navy), with all the power and ability. Several naval base formed relics ships Bureau of Shipping Japan deceived, and his bodyguard were recruited personnel to meet the demands of the task as a marine guard the newly formed Republic. Not dampen the strength of simple to deploy Navy Cross Marine Operations in order to spread the news of the proclamation and preparing the armed forces in various places in Indonesia. Besides, they also breach the naval blockade Dutch shipping in order to get help from abroad.
During the nineteen forty-nine - nineteen fifty-nine Navy had perfected strength and enhance its capabilities. In the field of organization formed Fleet Navy, Marine Corps, who was known as the Corps Commander Navy (Marines-AL), Naval Air and Maritime Area Command as a command of the sea aspects of territorial defense.
In the 1990s the Navy to get additional power in the form of warship types Parchim class corvette, the landing ship tank (LST) class 'Frosch', and Mine Sweeper Kondor class. The addition of this power is still considered far from the needs and demands of the task, the more so in this multidimensional crisis that demands increased support operations but gains limited. Internal reform of the TNI a big impact on the demands of the task of sharpening the Navy in the field of defense and security at sea such as reorganization and validation Fleet arranged in flotila-flotila warships according to the similarity function and organization of the Marine Corps expansion with the establishment of the division-level units of Marine Forces -I level in Surabaya and Jakarta Brigade stand alone.
2)      Navy Task
As per Law No. thirty-four Year two thousand four on TNI Article 9, in charge of the Navy:
a)      Sea ​​forces military duty in defense;
b)      Enforcing the law and maintaining security in the sea area of national jurisdiction in accordance with national laws and ratified international laws.
c)      Navy task diplomacy in support of foreign policy set by the government.
d)     Military task force in the construction and development of the sea forces.
e)      Implement empowerment sea defense area.
3.      Air Force
Air Force (TNI-AU) is part of the Indonesian National Armed Forces in charge of air operations and is headed by a Chief of Staff of the Air Force KASAU abbreviated. Currently the Air Force has two operational command the Air Force Operations Command I (Koops AU I), based in Halim Perdanakusuma airport, Jakarta and Air Force Operations Command II (Koops AU II) based in Makassar.
Air Force motto is Sanskrit Bhuwana Forced Swa means "Guardian Wing My Fatherland".
1)      A Brief History of the Air Force
Air Force was born with the establishment of the People's Security Agency (BKR) on the date twenty-three August nineteen forty-five, in order to strengthen the Air Fleet at that needy aircraft and other facilities. on the fifth of October nineteen forty-five turns into People's Security Army (TKR) flight department under Air Commodore Soerjadi Soerjadarma.
On the twenty-third January nineteen forty-five TKR increased again to TRI, as a continuation of the development of the Air Force shoots. On the ninth of April sebilan twelve four-six, TRI aviation department was abolished and replaced by the Indonesian Air Force, which is now celebrated as the birth of the Air Force that was unveiled in conjunction with the establishment of the Indonesian National Army (TNI).
On July twenty-ninth nineteen four seven three cadet pilots the Air Force Cadets Mulyono respectively, Cadets and Cadet Sutarjo Suharnoko Harbani Sigit using two planes and one Guntei Cureng successfully bombed the Dutch fortifications in three places, each one in the city of Semarang, Salatiga, and Ambarawa.
The initial capital is the Air Force planes captured from Japanese forces such as the type Cureng, Nishikoren and Hayabusha. Planes is what is the origin of the establishment of the Air Force. After the decision of the Round Table Conference in nineteen ninety four, the Air Force received several Dutch Air Force assets include aircraft, hangars, depot maintenance, and other logistics depot. Several types of aircraft acquired Dutch among other C-four seven Dakota, B-two-five-Mitchell, P-five one Mustang, AT-six Harvard-five PBY Catalina, and Lockheed L-twelve.
Nineteen fifty years, the Air Force sends pilots sixty candidates to California United States, the education flying at Trans Ocean Airlines Oakland Airport (Taloa). At that time, the Air Force received aircraft from the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, such as the MiG-seventeen, nineteen-MiG, MiG-twenty-one, a light bomber Tupolev Tu-two, and hunters Lavochkin La-eleven. The planes took part in Operation Trikora and Dwikora.
Air Force suffered under high national popularity led by KASAU Second Vice Marshal Omar Dhani TNI early nineteen sixty. Air Force to update its fleet in early nineteen eighty with the arrival of the OV-ten Bronco, A-four Sky Hawk, F-five Tiger, F-sixteen Fighting Falcon, and Hawk hundred / two hundred.
2)      Task Force
In accordance with the Law on the TNI chapter ten, the Air Force assigned:
a)      Carry out military air force in the defense;
b)      Enforcing the law and maintaining security in the airspace of national jurisdiction in accordance with national laws and ratified international laws;
c)      Carry out military tasks in the construction and development of the power of air force, as well as
d)     Implement empowerment area air defense.




CHAPTER III
CLOSING
Knot
Indonesian National Army (TNI or commonly abbreviated) is the name of the armed forces of Indonesia. At the beginning of the People's Security Army was formed named (TKR) later renamed the Army of the Republic of Indonesia (TRI), and then changed again its name to what it is today.
Indonesian National Army (TNI) of the three armed forces, the Army, Navy, and Air Force. TNI led by a military commander, while each class is led by a Chief of Staff. TNI Commander Admiral Agus is Suhartono.
Historically, the TNI had merged with the police. This combination is called ABRI (Indonesian Armed Forces) which uses the slogan "Chess Dharma Eka Karma" abbreviated "CADEK". Appropriate number VI MPR / MPR / separation of two thousand military and police as well as MPR number VII / MPR / two thousand on the Role of the TNI and the police role on September two thousand thirty four TNI bill approved by the House of Representatives who signed next by President Megawati on the nineteenth October two thousand and four.
Over the reform era in Indonesia, the TNI had significant internal reform process. Among these are changes in the doctrine of "Chess" to "Tri" after the separation of the police from the military. Based on the Decree of the TNI commander Kep number / twenty one / I / two thousand and seven, on the twelfth of January two thousand and seven, military doctrine is set to "Tri Dharma Eka Karma", abbreviated "TRIDEK".
Two thousand and twelve, the number of military personnel is as much as four hundred and seventy-six thousand personnel.












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3 comments:

Cewek Teknik mengatakan...

hebat cuy
d index no 2 di google

[ Reply ] | 4 Mei 2013 21.24
Putra mengatakan...

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[ Reply ] | 5 Januari 2014 05.35
Niken Pratistita mengatakan...

Sangat membantu saya dalam tata penulisan makalah nya. Terimakasih :)

[ Reply ] | 20 September 2014 21.33

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